Mining Microdata:

economic opportunity and spatial mobility
in Britain, Canada and The United States, 1850-1911

Supported by


1. de Tocqueville A. Democracy in America. Paris, 1831.

2. de Tocqueville A. Regards sur le Bas-Canada. Montré al: Typo, 2003 (1836).

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16. Modell J. The Peopling of a Working-Class Ward: Reading, Pennsylvania, 1850. Journal of Social History 1971;5(1):71-95.

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19. Katz MB. The people of Hamilton, Canada West: Family and class in a mid-nineteenth-century city. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975.

20. Gagan D. Geographical and social mobility in nineteenth-century Ontario: a microstudy*. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue canadienne de sociologie 1976;13(2):152-64.

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29. Sage WN. Towards New Horizons in Canadian History. Pacific Historical Review 1939;8(1):47-57.

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35. Sharp PF. When Our West Moved North. The American Historical Review 1950;55(2):286-300.

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38. Takai Y. Gendered Passages: French-Canadian Migration to Lowell, Massachusetts, 1900-1920. New York: Peter Lang, 2008.

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50. Gaffield C. Boom and Bust: The Demography and Economy of the Lower Ottawa Valley in the Nineteenth Century. Historical Papers / Communications historiques 1982;17(1):172-95.

51. Malin JC. The turnover of farm population in Kansas. Kansas Historical Quarterly 1935;4:339-72.

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53. Throne M. A Population Study of an Iowa County in 1850. Iowa Journal of History 1959;57:305-30.

54. Coleman PJ. Restless Grant County: Americans on the Move. Wisconsin Magazine of History1962;46:16-20.

55. Thernstrom S. Poverty and progress; social mobility in a nineteenth century city. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964.

56. Thompson EP. The making of the English working class. New York: Vintage Books, 1963.

57. Hobsbawn EJ. The Tramping Artisan. The Economic History Review 1951;3(3):299-320.

58. Preston B. Occupations of Father and Son in Mid-Victorian England. Department of Geography, University of Reading Geographical Papers No. 56. Reading, 1977.

59. Lambert P, Prandy K, Bottero W. By Slow Degrees: Two Centuries of Social Reproduction and Mobility in Britain. Sociological Research Online 2007. http://www. socresonline. org. uk/12/1/prandy. html;12(1).

60. Kaelble H. Social mobility in the 19th and 20th centuries : Europe and America in comparative perspective. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986.

61. Mitch D. Literacy and Occupational Mobility in Rural versus Urban Victorian England: Evidence from the Linked Marriage Register and Census Records for Birmingham and Norfolk, 1851 and 1881. Historical Methods 2005;38(1):26-38.

62. Hall PK, Ruggles S. ’Restless in the Midst of Their Prosperity’: New Evidence on the Internal Migration of Americans, 1850–2000. Journal of American History 2004;91(3):829-46.

63. Litwak E. Geographic Mobility and Extended Family Cohesion. American Sociological Review 1960;25(3):385-94.

64. Astone NM, McLanahan SS. Family Structure, Residential Mobility, and School Dropout: A Research Note. Demography 1994;31(4):575-84.

65. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2001;50(1):1-17.

66. Wolf DA, Longino CF. Our increasingly mobile society? The curious persistence of a false belief. The Gerontologist 2005;45(1):5-11.

67. Faloon H. Tax Considerations: Moving Between Provinces. Canadian Moneysaver 2011(March/April).

68. Piekarski C. Effect of an Increasingly Mobile Society on Kentucky’s Grandparent Visitation Statute: The Ability of Courts to Enforce Their Orders, The. Brandeis Law Journal 2003;42(3):693-710.

69. Fischer CS. Ever-More Rooted Americans. City & Community 2002;1(2):177-98.

70. Layman GC, Carsey TM, Horowitz JM. Party Polarization in American Politics: Characteristics, Causes, and Consequences. Annual Review of Political Science 2006;9(1):83-110.

71. Cooke TJ. It is not Just the Economy: Declining Migration and the Rise of Secular Rootedness. Population, Space and Place 2011;17(3):193-203.

72. Ferrie J. History lessons: The end of American exceptionalism? Mobility in the United States since 1850. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 2005;19(3):199-215.

73. Altham PME, Ferrie JE. Comparing Contingency Tables. Historical Methods 2007;40(1):3-16.

74. Bourdieu J, Ferrie JP, Kesztenbaum L. Vive la diffé rence? Intergenerational Mobility in France and the United States during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 2009;39(4):523-57.

75. Long J, Ferrie J. Intergenerational Occupational Mobility in Britain and the U. S. Since 1850. American Economic Review 2011 forthcoming.

76. Long J. Rural-urban migration and socioeconomic mobility in Victorian Britain. Journal of Economic History 2005;65(01):1-35.

77. Long J. The socioeconomic return to primary schooling in Victorian England. Journal of Economic History 2006;66(4):1026-53.

78. Goeken R, Hall PK. New Findings on Internal Migration using Linked Records. Historical Methods 2011 forthcoming.

79. Goeken R, Huynh L, Lynch TA, Vick R. New Methods of Census Record Linking. Historical Methods 2011;44(1):7-14.

80. Miles A. Social mobility in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century England. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

81. Dillon L. The shady side of fifty : age and old age in late Victorian Canada and the United States. Montré al: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2008.

82. Dillon L, Gratton B, Moen J. Retirement at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: A Canadian Perspective. Canadian Historical Review 2010;91(1):27-59.

83. Olson S, Thornton P. Peopling the North American City: Montré al, 1840-1900. Montré al: McGill- Queens University Press, 2011.

84. Gilliland J, Olson S. Residential Segregation in the Industrializing City: A Closer Look Urban Geography 2010;31(1):29-58.

85. Gauvreau D, Olson S. Mobilité sociale dans une ville industrielle nord-amé ricaine: Montré al, 1880-1900. Annales de dé mographie historique 2008(1):89-114.

86. Gauvreau D, Thornton P, Olson S. The harsh welcome of an industrial city: Immigrant women in Montreal, 1880-1900. Social History/Histoire Sociale 2007 40(80):345-80.

87. Darroch G. Home and Away: Patterns of Residence, Schooling, and Work among Children and Never

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88. Van Leeuwen MHD, Maas I. Historical Studies of Social Mobility and Stratification. Annual Review of Sociology 2010;36:429-51.

89. Ruggles S, Roberts E, Sarkar S, Sobek M. The North Atlantic Population Project: Progress and Prospects Historical Methods 2011;44(1):1-6.

90. Minnesota Population Center. North Atlantic Population Project: Complete Count Microdata. Version 2.0. [machine readable database]. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Population Center [distributor], 2008.

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92. Ruggles S. Linking historical censuses: A new approach. History and Computing 2006;14(1/2):213- 24.

93. Hacker JD. The Human Cost of War: White Population in the United States, 1850–1880 [PhD]. University of Minnesota, 1999.

94. King ML, Magnuson DL. Perspectives on Historical U. S. Census Undercounts. Social Science History 1995;19(4):455-66.

95. Goeken R, Nguyen C, Ruggles S, Sargent W. The 1880 U. S. Population Database. Historical Methods 2003;36(1):27-34.

96. Dillon L, Ruggles S. Creating Historical Snapshots of North America in 1880 / 1: Collaboration Between Historians and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints On The 1880 / 1 Census Databases of the United States and Canada. Genealogical Journal 2001;29(3):107-113.

97. Pamarthy K. A Machine Learning Framework for Record Linkage in Census Data [MS]. University of Minnesota, 2007.

98. Vick R, Huynh L. The Effects of Standardizing Names for Record Linkage: Evidence from the United States and Norway. Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History 2011;44(1):15 — 24.

99. Antonie L, Baskerville P, Inwood K, Ross A. Creating Longitudinal Data from Canadian Historical Censuses. Department of Economics, University of Guelph. Guelph, 2011. http://www. economics. uoguelph. ca/kinwood/link/canada7181.pdf

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